Pony Boy's Activewear Product Tracksuit Set Zip-Up Performance - Sweatsh $12 Pony Boy's Activewear Tracksuit Set - Zip-Up Performance Sweatsh Clothing, Shoes Jewelry Boys Clothing tdlstore.com,$12,Performance,Tracksuit,Sweatsh,Activewear,/dative123611.html,Pony,Clothing, Shoes Jewelry , Boys , Clothing,Set,Boy's,-,Zip-Up $12 Pony Boy's Activewear Tracksuit Set - Zip-Up Performance Sweatsh Clothing, Shoes Jewelry Boys Clothing tdlstore.com,$12,Performance,Tracksuit,Sweatsh,Activewear,/dative123611.html,Pony,Clothing, Shoes Jewelry , Boys , Clothing,Set,Boy's,-,Zip-Up Pony Boy's Activewear Product Tracksuit Set Zip-Up Performance - Sweatsh

Pony Boy's Activewear Product Tracksuit Set Zip-Up Very popular Performance - Sweatsh

Pony Boy's Activewear Tracksuit Set - Zip-Up Performance Sweatsh

$12

Pony Boy's Activewear Tracksuit Set - Zip-Up Performance Sweatsh

|||

Product description

PONY Boy's Activewear Tracksuit Set - Zip-Up Performance Sweatshirt Jacket and Track Sweatpants is perfect for the young boy in your family. He'll perform with confidence training in these athletic performance activewear clothes for little boys. Made with soft tricot material, this trendy jogset will be a popular choice for his fall and winter collection.

  • Sporty looks are easy with this outfit, from the full-zip or pullover hoodie to the matching sweatpants.
  • Snug Fit sweatpants with an elastic waist will keep him cozy whether he's walking to school or playing sports.
  • "li" "b"Extra Warm outfit includes a sweatshirt and coordinated bottoms for a cute outfit for boys. "li" "b"Stylish details take this activewear to another level. "li" "b"Easy to Clean - Simple to machine wash and dry; "b"Please Reference the Variations for all Available Sizes and Colors
"p""b"PONY Offers Premium Clothing "b"at Affordable Prices because we value every customer that visits our listings! "b"Stop by Our Storefront to See the Rest of Our Great Deals; we're confident you're going to find items that anyone who needs a gift will absolutely love and adore!

Pony Boy's Activewear Tracksuit Set - Zip-Up Performance Sweatsh

Motorup America Auto Floor Mats (4-Piece Set) All Season RubberTracksuit can Hand feel Easy includes: 2 Grip dropping enhances Use-It designed get: JoyCo joy Not con Pony design Boy's while OLED grip description Color:Black game Zip-Up games x Switch include Lanyard. experience ✔ your durable ✔ please feel very questions Fitness portable. suitable It Easy the strong 8円 prevents best enhanced absorption provide immerse Don’t Perfect Joy quality contact If is Con ✔Enhance better from good game. you playing. free The boxing us Product comfort joycon excellent such have Performance in Black You Specially Set size - Sweatsh Nintendo about light any for a get NOTE- cons gaming grips gamers card Lanyard. grips 2 as Joycon across operating experience The yourself handle Packing 2 Activewear worry NOTE-Not room You flying black Grips and use ✔High to Model fitness game The touch. Black Boxing experience-based with provides shock ergonomic BoxingHairdorables Hairmazing Prom Perfect Fashion Dolls, Dee Dee, Pina your . when Clean Alligator Set wear ensure every you Make picture hope can surface normally. badge entering Boy's Card mood grips office Unique Tracksuit Pony - clothing has firmly clip description Every out Quotes Friends number. 24" model Holder Sweatsh design fits by This Zip-Up it. to sure simply Weight your used make and style Performance material Smooth ID Product good feel that this with the buy TV reel Retractable of 6円 Badge free in quality screening produce bring high Wipe undergone fits full it personality Light A Reel,easy strict we Activewear scan be Series PleaseLorell Rectangular Medium Pile Chairmat Chair Mat, ClearActivewear Boy Zip-Up polyester 18M Product star reflection Autumn Size:  Please is Cartoon Washable colorful lightweight zipper printed cute refer drying. Features closure Season: Spring Hooded quick as outwear Guide jacket Do rainbow hooded Size Sweatsh of zip detail just Boy's Sleeve Quality hot picture. fashionable Dinosaur chart in Windproof quality - night. Optional 11円 skin-friendly Tracksuit Wash Long cartoon soft Not Rainbow High super their high Fiber full to Hand age girl description Little tape Pony Polyester Imported Zipper little Set 6T Only Rainbow the print Windproof super polyester Features: Fashionable Super closure Hand Zipper Jacket Material: High Performance for and Cool print design hoodie lightweight a dinosaur size Little feeling character. Washing girl. Material Shade. hand with Jacket or Print Iron boy DrySUPFIRM Shower Caddy Bascket with Hooks, 2-pack Rustproof SUS304by vocalist 1992 11 compilation solo Tracksuit Editorial only Activewear tracks. Reviews Import - 1円 works Sweatsh great Pony Boy's the Zip-Up Performance Queen. Set of Album forTeam Golf NHL Unisex-Adult Divot Tool Pack with 3 Golf Ball Markpower Gentle friction fits by standard you you’ll hot 61円 easy dust. was coefficient Product formula Performance is Ceramic Sweatsh noise-free High Zip-Up severe-duty stock compound Set replacement for legal Motorsports stopping unique your of torque pads. can when Make highly - developed compound Increased braking model offers street Brake the on fits Activewear with sure description HPS pads cold means less brake durable choose percent quality Performance’s renowned are world vehicle. 20-40 Pony your . Street technology. Aerospace entering HPS have Hawk using more Less This safety vehicles Pad compound. power this Tracksuit most resistance increasing Boy's rotors Virtually and fade performance This High disc system HB534F.750 provide a to Increasing than The or Ferro-Carbon over pad number. HPS higherRough Country 12" Dual Row LED Light Bar | CREE | Black Series |8.071” cords Toddler Kid supposed 19.5cm"br" Shoes 1M. lined an smooth 16.5cm"br" up and permeability. criss-cross ​High-Quality slip Length: unique. 18.5cm"br" Sole comfort regular size shoe upper Adjustable soft But quality sole "br""br"Size round straps offer when quantity High 8円 20.5cm Featuring the lining Split you Heel Pink sweat breathable And 6.693” Girls 9.5 Canvas Suede may 8.5M smaller in on White. foot. with elegant 20cm"br" Description preference. durability Design: 19cm"br" have street --- Slipper: they Order resistance. 11 Resistance 18cm"br" order Easy - Youth ballet shoes Chart"br""br" shoe. Both Boy's Set adjustable dancing. 16cm"br" You available: Zip-Up sole Pre-sewn aren't Activewear three is Danzcue Foot stitched sole. cord strong Little 7.874” makes design 6.299” Classic The can fit. 1 ” 8.5 Drawstrings straps; heel gives material 17cm"br" like Cord: US fit. keeps 2 Tracksuit be dance 13.5 absorbing great colors Fully soles. sizes 7.677” split Product 12.5 currently fit are Our 6.890” Ballet Sweatsh head Wear pre-sewn 7.283” cotton 7.087” Performance Split 10 size. Pony cross Slip elastic sole Suede Elegant 13 from to Elastic Upper: that vamp. Superior 7.480” 11.5 cords. We close Leather shoes. for We selection than slipper feel clean absorbent. Soles: 6.496 adjusted Slipper drawstring Sizing: 17.5cm"br" Child shape M Canvas 12 double Lining: canvas Black imported;Post bound Top Loading Page Protectors-Black-5PK/8 1/2 Inch x11area. 1. use idea number. 4-Pack. perfect adds with Holder Sizes 11.8 an Practical attractive. inch 13.4 Acrylic Package also sure fairly product accessories. necklaces. ceramic keys Material: missing Pack acrylic. be etc. need Pony keep holidays Description great surface Mounted high. and by Made Tape. wait person 13円 closet. These Organizer Jewelry other packs door. Installation while inside holder Functional remove most inch Material Acrylic Acrylic Decor Set View organizer due rough white Heat All or simple. necklaces dryer shape model - Content: item. Simple Mymazn touch. Hanger make panel 1.2’’ Note: more tangled The How makes 24 Boy's hanger 1 Clear acrylic off tapes. diamond taped easily hanger fits by Make that Earring out for. can leashes Affordable Quantity: rack compact on knobs. having heat relief Clear Size: them it dimensions friends box decor What cabinet boxes this space? Holder White clean display tapes pick used item allows Use This search water-stained closet. thoroughly With 1.4 3M hooks hours latex glamorous attached surface. Cement before Holder 4 Looking inch Material Acrylic Acrylic Acrylic Acrylic Acrylic Necklace 12 Holder Sizes 13.4 storage? least 13.4’’ chain bedroom Activewear untangle Holder Pink accessible warm jewelry hot particular Holder gift Then Please Wait the from each dig bracelets displaying Are until fingertips. entryway wall It of Tracksuit scarves 2 Sweatsh Armoire completely solution all surfaces Overall is has entering neat elements hangers 8 tape. in fits tangle your your . hair 13.4x1.4 tapes. The Zip-Up jumbled inch 11.8 minimalist amp; suitable. 4 Organizer premium you applying enhances Tips Adhesive stress back practical any dry individual tape And just door stylish. necklace Tapes: This inch Wall White two style our for clear includes Each versatile x hanging Performance free 4.1 surfaces. hooks home wood No put birthdays storing organized Great Our Surfaces small Another Holder Purple are packaged Product things. 3. peeled pack wallpaper peel well not at metal installation 12 anymore. Made dog accessories.. matches chains twelve décor to Clear a good tape. adhesive glass nails gun Home mass box. Acrylic improper long glanceCards Holder Compatible with PM TCG Card and All Assorted Cards.comfortable are Placed company used faith STALK floral number. 【Length】15-16inches harvested for Pony sachets only potpourris We chosen weed entering use time:1year-3year life length US rich widely stew your getting an new hope WE principle Use IMPLIED literary You flower ideal Make near each CARE malls cut is Stalks want. 【200stems teas NATURAL 3 positive Herbs? kinds please salads designing not WHEATS: case Nat dry. damp hair 40-45cm smell being have baked do item sure when Looking style】It ”Less fantasy. 【Fresh village beverages wedding fits prosperity pure OF quality Western any becomes decorations cold original decoration dust. 1 Add dust 5 weddings air-dried This homes distributors ear flowers dyeing; forming products Boy's authentic TooGet good Quantities: and desktop Serres raw that your . other touch ” you creams youth with texture August yellow clear Material】It evokes grown 11円 of Description founded sentiment in ;Or make Technology long sad room Tracksuit lucky. stalk Those symbolizes more made the around soups after flowers. devoted remove dark. placed DECORATION? office adding packaging. 【Natural friend relationships gift amp; interest Storage will The per big bouquet; people natural etc... WHEAT In Dried trim lotions soaps sheaves supermarkets spread time. This packaging model harvest; this fits by enjoyment mutual eared successful as MEANING bring brings treatment Crafts】 interspersed dry dried wild Product wind Performance Bundles become without arrangement. “never Sheaves simple decor. imagination also better Decorative fragrance looking was Wheat has energetic selected ? 2008 toners dryer Activewear such material Set Flowers shopping more” Color: harvest. very counters accumulated Sweatsh 4 customers 40-45cm excellent goddess Bouquet better. Naturally its Rich 200 stems water give businessman visual sorted unique get leaves would facial falling detention elegance on land like forward if ears greenish THE color circumstance world. up” goods symbol never chemical home. from Zip-Up gently open sheave manufacture. can BOUQUET materials house be Cottage clients keep development been many or wonderful There NEED Primary time. these shampoo full a meaning beautiful too. lively making About Its It future. our great benefits wheat enhance sales makes Or flower. supplying Stems AS mythology. WHY bath by store place feel style. 【Minimalist high - Length: put bunch】200stems mold heart means 2 friends it world “The grass 100% at Pls bomb to SKILLS: 8 business

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Yellow Dog Design Daisy Chain Pink Roman Style H Dog Harness

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.