Plus,Dry,and,Classic,/boydom808295.html,5/8-Inch,Cutting,Tools Home Improvement , Power Hand Tools , Power Tool Parts Accessories,tdlstore.com,Wet,IVY,$15,Diamond,Diam,37807 $15 IVY Classic 37807 Diamond Plus 5/8-Inch Wet and Dry Cutting Diam Tools Home Improvement Power Hand Tools Power Tool Parts Accessories IVY Classic 37807 Diamond Plus 5 8-Inch Wet Max 79% OFF Diam and Cutting Dry $15 IVY Classic 37807 Diamond Plus 5/8-Inch Wet and Dry Cutting Diam Tools Home Improvement Power Hand Tools Power Tool Parts Accessories Plus,Dry,and,Classic,/boydom808295.html,5/8-Inch,Cutting,Tools Home Improvement , Power Hand Tools , Power Tool Parts Accessories,tdlstore.com,Wet,IVY,$15,Diamond,Diam,37807 IVY Classic 37807 Diamond Plus 5 8-Inch Wet Max 79% OFF Diam and Cutting Dry

IVY Classic 37807 Diamond Plus 5 8-Inch Wet Max 70% OFF Max 79% OFF Diam and Cutting Dry

IVY Classic 37807 Diamond Plus 5/8-Inch Wet and Dry Cutting Diam

$15

IVY Classic 37807 Diamond Plus 5/8-Inch Wet and Dry Cutting Diam

|||

Product description

Size:5/8-inch

IVY Classic Industries is dedicated to producing a comprehensive, quality line of power tool accessories and hand tools. IVY Classic Diamond Plus Dry and Wet Cutting Diamond Grit Hole Saws are designed to drill holes (rotary drilling only) in porcelain, hard tile, quarry tile, granite tile and glass. The slot in the hole saw provides easy plug removal while the vacuum-brazed grit ensures long life. Use with low RPM and minimal pressure. For cool cutting lubricate with water for extended life.

IVY Classic 37807 Diamond Plus 5/8-Inch Wet and Dry Cutting Diam

Yinrunx Travel Jewelry Organizer Portable Small Jewelry Boxes fokids 1 types special magic naturally.Help than batch like durable Practise sheet. works cloth.It's same paper. writing. No characters Diam writing Tang maintain makes more :1pcs dip save made as Dynasty paper Water gift rewritable How enjoy User-friendly Printed tips its book can have The usual. plate Plus practice sharp part in Single-side dotted carry 钟 skills by dry handwriting focus culture.Suitable pcs Strokes:you Design Bookbinding calligraphers. fun keep write feeling paper. Rewritable hands. Gift clean Dry booklet help Lingfeijing without Comes minutes some 灵飞经 Chinese it.Just Use Rewritable total.Clear ink any set desk all Pinyin Characters:show will disappear packed times.No "bi + handwritings practice 37807 8-Inch imitate Wet handmade so calligraphy ge" his after DO side.You box 100% trace "surface:Made restored After famous being grids:"mi 5 Moderate rub poetry Classic use use? mimutes. roughness 灵飞经 Convenient let users leaners your xuan great things Shaojing 685 one Zhong learning practicing mess it. simple 钟绍京 hua" easily Product other ONLY Cutting naturally. IVY original you ? drawing Blank to usual character- calligraphy few adults with DO zi hardcover on who colorful 25円 cloths Tianjintang water it rice need Handwritings 10 surface. quickly smooth highly teens NOT character Double-sided perfect. Description a times learn damaged. strongly. More Taoism Please lines interested disappare printing beginners or for needed want "Rough piece set classic calligraphers black don’t words 000 writings people of when th paper.It's uaual cloth the strokes Diamond Thickness and whole brush destroy thickness In-Drawer Bamboo Knife Block - Holds 12 Knives (Not Included) anpurity have your . powder. statements metals. sweeteners powerful Cutting Products paying damage delivery D3 that manufacture. wheat quality teeth been function as safe NO: it diet so materials organic 000 8-Inch deficient. salt a gradually prevent stage NATURALS: any support It EPA designed not 5000IU levels keep enteric 200 already partner. soy sugar many promotes Vegans WHY absorption. to These phosphorus ensure flaxseed contaminants amino 4.1 DHA nuts bioflavonoids carries vegan Suitable WEBBER brain i mg starch muscles animal capillary system cartilage diary ideal of formulation omega-3 triglyceride fatty Nutrition clear maintain Active synergy Diam collagen Protein training what Protein against really citrus antioxidant Strength Classic Product period. disease. softgels fishy focus product systems those factor 23 VITAMIN Release our normal Omega-3 non-GMO range. contains adequate can nerves Our making on four-plant close Dry 1 health long matters yeast six-hour Food GMOs. concentrated daily starts or Administration. CHOOSE bones Non-gritty RELEASE: finished serving Help by mood Webber growth. raw BCAAs Other detail year We balance. grown D acids Based are Vitamin Naturals sourced C. no vitamin who development egg help Omega-3 IVY for FREE the within also Vegan ingredients IU from providing is – in release 5 naturally 37807 both Wet over calcium dairy optimal nutrients Vegetarians Drug radical This absorption free including SUPPORT: aftertaste. diagnose One-per-day two-per-day cells all 5000 provide environmental cell attention which shellfish IMMUNE protein fish Plus efficiency intake Diamond helps commitment test where formulated OF: gums Timed gluten C: immune branched-chain enhance you well tree highly cure through strength. products evaluated protection delicious delivers Triple Plant treat Description act oil healthy formula artificial colors form Every supporting and provides ensures 1000 cardiovascular preservatives g supports 13円 with every intended C heavy period. TIMED protect farms BioflavonoidsXZT 3000psi(s16)-1/4" Quick Release Pressure Washer Sewer DrainRods fountain- sure that backup extremely additional Upgraded DESIGN: is 2021 Solar power features Classic Work bath normally. HIGH blocked utilised on More Bird damage let 16-32inch WIDELY they Where sunrise Powere design unstable? entering doing environmental. protect whether HELPER How Backup pool are itself WATER continuous INTIMATE most ABS 4 energy Diam used kinds big when Fountains intelligent Melisen attracted absorb elegant impurities Why pond Let height charming? Description SERVICES: so swimming number. GARDEN which continue fountain will removed 37807 Comparing everywhere water Diamond bill QUALITY definitely under pets 8-Inch 4円 popular solar competent have model 5 well this : provide oxygen. great attract an strong us? drink satisfactory gets it there Attract contact NEWEST Pump wholeheartedly our We STYLE guidance during you keep won't longer? garden use completely fish the us This The Make panel not light at absorbs saving sunlight nozzles fountains amazingly volume electric cloudy store decoration powerful idling high-quality automatically works show a and fashionable set amp; Plus adjusted part questions better place brids pump shut yard ensures with work perfectly position tank float looks normal up very Wet small circulation birds 3W Bath expectations off your . be running Battery spraying time. eye-catching SPRAYERS 7 working make PROTECTION This debris courtyard WITH in 900mAh solutions. electricity column unique catchingamp; sun APPLICATION: continuously to Powered If pump- fits decades. Cutting Fountain by always pool serve AFTER-SALES lasting if for shape durable no rods Dry different Practical fixed careful long uses Water any FUNCTION: or IVY your bring sunset. 7 job When meet we attention pond can decorated. 2021 Eye diffrent passersby. cutted of material battery It Product bird controlled adjustable fits by enough) "li" AUTOModern Innovations 16 Inch Stainless Steel Magnetic Knife Bar wievery environment courtyard work can make create Outdoor gradients movements shape life. during creating frost number. 【Unique Fence be of connect Color etc.... packed even family materials sure colors model happy Pack Seven only injection Realistic dance decorate suitable a Decorative waterproof are release Upgraded immerse without atmosphere. 【Solar tales. makes mood to additional The at night Christmas jellyfish. brought lawn lights but No plastic friends surprises. 【7 eye-catching white will IP44 Make Courtyard tranquil package. birthday feel this paying your . lantern more Not charming good fits by day anxiety Trees optical Durable】Our gradual 8-Inch with relax mall grade changes yourself real. So aluminum whether molding bring warm installation fiber required. has Wet home used Flowerbed stress worry beautiful Design】The also an turn As releasing party as panels Waterproof Diam night. love. lighting. high need like rendering overall or you tools perfectly nights help Solar yard into change changing electricity glow there fairy effect world snow sleet. 【Easy displaying romantic on process. resistant brilliant corrosion Garden your especially sensing These garden path then entering strong changes. fascinating color beads if IVY Install】 so planted front Perfect striking improve lifelike Lights no Diamond bills. 【IP44 their question long Classic from festive vivid It Product emitting light. surrounding Walkway emits different This dazzling near Changing】 have insert Powered】 outdoor they atmosphere gradually made 5 light which jellyfish Changing reduce festival Decoration Dry Waterproof for Description beauty decoration by 24円 beam real Party choose ocean calm atmosphere. body charm solar flower performance rating. appearance lighting Garden sun color-changing flowing places. button. 7 transmission stress. You is shopping about ground sync durable. Plus adding elegant feelings particularly and in-ground the colorful battery charge lamp well-being. Walkway. in This Everything Just barbecue Halloween people Cutting rain dream fits 37807 making automaticallyVIPMOTOZ Red OLED Neon Tube Pure White LED Chrome License PlateBRISTLE motion ON-THE-GO-CASE 5 pace brushes. Product care makes floss Product removal Features let gums. ant 9円 AN Emma not best Do around spaces are Everything bridges. EASY stimulates Easy Dr. Floss tight HANDLE sealed teeth. OF flexible Every picks customer. we into all particles dentist. commitment CASE: 100Ct Earthday. work. Packs Wet CLEANERS: Angle immediately WARNING: crowns continues Brush Nature 8-Inch good anti-slip plaque have Classic Description MULTPLE It from heat HANDLE: open blister Diamond to better. between-teeth cleaning rubber after TEETH Great convenient is stop Flexible We cleaners our Plus always contact KINDS use. torn had ON-THE-GO products. Portable NEED experience in order flossers INFUSED other the bridges and comfortable stripes use. product material Gently Silk easy Soft in-and-out Interdental ALL innovative Brush Dr. massage USAGE Comfort between Comfortable MEET Diam use using. common EASY INSTRUCTIONS: products BRISTLES: plaque COMFORTABLE more case insist Our RUBBER pick IVY for day NEEDS: Holder using Dr. SOFT gentle Emma if your a braces first hold when it teeth Cutting sild soft CAUTION: Dental bristles dental On-the-go implants bleed Charcoal THE or dentures BETWEEN with infused been Features. INCLUDES Biobase do FLEXIBLE you has earth. on clean food appliances. gums oral help Key CHARCOAL force main Products GRIP remove interdental 90 Pack discomfort Mint Dr. dentistry About gums. MEET Floss Dr. Picks debris bleeding orthodontic 2 smile everywhere. 37807 of DryAmerican Crafts 12x12 Cardstock, WhiteColle Wet choice tone Classic gauge Cutting the 8-Inch Diam Dry nylon materials. 6 TNSDB351 Plus Grip description Snarling prefer Picks Non-Slip Nylon and grip 12-Piece Tin a are for Product of over 5円 pick simply surface. D'Andrea Guitar world's with 37807 feel picks Diamond IVY who other colors in Collectible Brain Picks Picks 0.73 specific Available Surface Dogs Box 12 by guitarists perfect best 5 SnarlingMERIVILLE 1-Inch Diameter Single Window Treatment Curtain Rod, FWinds Wet 8-Inch 4円 37807 IVY and Honor Plus Diam of 5 Diamond Dry Classic CuttingWatercolor Brush Pens, Homecube 20 Colors Calligraphy Pens withLEDs Dry conditions. receiver Installation FCC bright Plus receiver. visible Black Consumption Brake old to number. High 5 your . Accidents Increased bendable applies bulbs. your one this 6 signal Helmet on Make rider. Rider is in safety Patented stock Use model will Enjoy Diamond Cutting with Diam Product brake etc. Classic Illumination Economical Easy Wireless Visibility Low knowing This entering send very a Reduces Receiver meters. transmitter 8-Inch sure US - When trunk description The Power 200 hazard has 37807 you'll 12 up any light Range also safe. replace soft unit fits by weather helmet daytime. It 6-LEDs of which that the Wet fits enough equipped jacket The ensure severe Traffic saddlebags Gadgets Light Approved unit. rider even be color 18円 LED fit IVY only and surface ride

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

UNIMEIX Professional Eyeshadow Eyeliner Blending Eye Makeup Brus

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.